R vs. Python

R

Academics and statisticians have developed R over two decades. R has now one of the richest ecosystems to perform data analysis. There are around 12000 packages available in CRAN (open-source repository). It is possible to find a library for whatever the analysis you want to perform. The rich variety of library makes R the first choice for statistical analysis, especially for specialized analytical work.

The cutting-edge difference between R and the other statistical products is the output. R has fantastic tools to communicate the results. Rstudio comes with the library knitr. Xie Yihui wrote this package. He made reporting trivial and elegant. Communicating the findings with a presentation or a document is easy.

Python

Python can pretty much do the same tasks as R: data wrangling, engineering, feature selection web scrapping, app and so on. Python is a tool to deploy and implement machine learning at a large-scale. Python codes are easier to maintain and more robust than R. Years ago; Python didn’t have many data analysis and machine learning libraries. Recently, Python is catching up and provides cutting-edge API for machine learning or Artificial Intelligence. Most of the data science job can be done with five Python libraries: Numpy, Pandas, Scipy, Scikit-learn and Seaborn.

Python, on the other hand, makes replicability and accessibility easier than R. In fact, if you need to use the results of your analysis in an application or website, Python is the best choice.

Key Differences

  1. R is mainly used for statistical analysis while Python provides a more general approach to data science
  2. The primary objective of R is Data analysis and Statistics whereas the primary objective of Python is Deployment and Production
  3. R users mainly consists of Scholars and R&D professionals while Python users are mostly Programmers and Developers
  4. R provides flexibility to use available libraries whereas Python provides flexibility to construct new models from scratch
  5. R is difficult to learn at the beginning while Python is Linear and smooth to learn
  6. R is integrated to Run locally while Python is well-integrated with apps
  7. Both R and Python can handle huge size of database
  8. R can be used on the R Studio IDE while Python can be used on Spyder and Ipython Notebook IDEs
  9. R consists various packages and libraries like tidyverse, ggplot2, caret, zoo whereas Python consists packages and libraries like pandas, scipy, scikit-learn, TensorFlow, caret
Parameter R Python
Objective Data analysis and statistics Deployment and production
Primary Users Scholar and R&D Programmers and developers
Flexibility Easy to use available library Easy to construct new models from scratch. I.e., matrix computation and optimization
Learning curve Difficult at the beginning Linear and smooth
Popularity of Programming Language. Percentage change 4.23% in 2018 21.69% in 2018
Average Salary $99.000 $100.000
Integration Run locally Well-integrated with app
Task Easy to get primary results Good to deploy algorithm
Database size Handle huge size Handle huge size
IDE Rstudio Spyder, Ipython Notebook
Important Packages and library tidyverse, ggplot2, caret, zoo pandas, scipy, scikit-learn, TensorFlow, caret
Disadvantages Slow
High Learning curve
Dependencies between library
Not as many libraries as R
Advantages Graphs are made to talk. R makes it beautiful
Large catalog for data analysis
GitHub interface
RMarkdown
Shiny
Jupyter notebook: Notebooks help to share data with colleagues
Mathematical computation
Deployment
Code Readability
Speed
Function in Python

References:

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